Send to

Choose Destination
J Voice. 2013 Jan;27(1):129.e15-129.e20. doi: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2011.08.012. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

Study of the influence of psychological factors in the etiology of vocal nodules in women.

Author information

General Hospital of Soria, Soria, Spain.



The role placed by certain psychological factors such as stress and personality on the development of vocal nodules has not yet been established. The aim of this case-control type study is to analyze the relationship between these psychological factors and the presence of vocal nodules while also considering the professional and social aspects of the subjects suffering from this pathology.


The case group is made up of 50 patients diagnosed with vocal nodules and with at least 6 months of evolution. The control group is made up of 50 patients diagnosed with nasal respiratory insufficiency. All the patients were examined by laryngeal stroboscopy. For the personality study, the perceived stress, and the voice use, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, Levenstein Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and Goldman Voice Use Survey were used, respectively.


The subjects with vocal nodules presented a mean perceived stress score of 0.41±0.09, which was higher than that of the control group (0.35±0.06), the differences observed being statistically significant (P<0.001). In the personality study (MMPI-2), the only scale that was associated with the presence of the vocal nodules was that of psychomotor acceleration. The mean score obtained for the scale was 51.64±8.25 in the vocal nodule group and 45.02±0.06 in the control group (P<0.001). In the analysis of voice use, the subjects with vocal nodules scored 9.31±1.36, which was significantly higher than the score of the control group (8.07±1.24; P<0.001). In addition, other variables were associated with the presence of vocal nodules, such as being young and working in professions considered to be of vocal risk.


Perceived stress and personality features of hyperactivity and impulsivity are independent factors related to vocal nodules.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center