Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Manag Care. 2011 Oct;17 Suppl 12:S308-14.

The impact and management of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

Author information

Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder diagnosed by the presence of bradykinesia and at least 1 of the symptoms of rigidity, resting tremor, or postural instability. It is increasingly recognized that nonmotor symptoms are common and can adversely affect quality of life, yet they often are not diagnosed and consequently are often untreated. Nonmotor symptoms include neuropsychiatric issues such as anxiety, depression, hallucinations, impulse control disorders, and cognitive impairment, as well as autonomic dysfunction, which may present as gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual disturbances. Nonmotor symptoms also include excessive sweating, orthostatic hypotension, and sleep disturbances. Management of PD requires recognition of both motor and nonmotor symptoms as well as an understanding of the relationship between these symptoms and how they can be affected by treatments for PD. Therapy should be individualized for each patient, as treatments for the motor symptoms of PD can improve some nonmotor symptoms while they can worsen others. In many cases, symptom-specific treatments are necessary to control nonmotor symptoms of PD.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Managed Care & Healthcare Communications, LLC
Loading ...
Support Center