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Psychol Med. 2012 Aug;42(8):1741-52. doi: 10.1017/S0033291711002558. Epub 2011 Nov 16.

Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.

Author information

1
Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK. Sara.Evans-Lacko@iop.kcl.ac.uk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems is needed.

METHOD:

This study links two large, international datasets to explore the association between public stigma in 14 European countries (Eurobarometer survey) and individual reports of self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among persons with mental illness (n=1835) residing in those countries [the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks (GAMIAN) study].

RESULTS:

Individuals with mental illness living in countries with less stigmatizing attitudes, higher rates of help-seeking and treatment utilization and better perceived access to information had lower rates of self-stigma and perceived discrimination and those living in countries where the public felt more comfortable talking to people with mental illness had less self-stigma and felt more empowered.

CONCLUSIONS:

Targeting the general public through mass anti-stigma interventions may lead to a virtuous cycle by disrupting the negative feedback engendered by public stigma, thereby reducing self-stigma among people with mental health problems. A combined approach involving knowledge, attitudes and behaviour is needed; mass interventions that facilitate disclosure and positive social contact may be the most effective. Improving availability of information about mental health issues and facilitating access to care and help-seeking also show promise with regard to stigma.

PMID:
22085422
DOI:
10.1017/S0033291711002558
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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