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Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Feb;5(2):164-78. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0391. Epub 2011 Nov 14.

Aspirin in the chemoprevention of colorectal neoplasia: an overview.

Author information

1
Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, USA. achan@partners.org

Abstract

Considerable evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) in addition to its well-established benefits in the prevention of vascular disease. Epidemiologic studies have consistently observed an inverse association between aspirin use and risk of CRC. A recent pooled analysis of a long-term posttrial follow-up of nearly 14,000 patients from four randomized, cardiovascular disease prevention trials showed that daily aspirin treatment for about five years was associated with a 34% reduction in 20-year CRC mortality. A separate metaanalysis of nearly 3,000 patients with a history of colorectal adenoma or cancer in four randomized adenoma prevention trials showed that aspirin reduced the occurrence of advanced adenomas by 28% and any adenoma by 17%. Aspirin has also been shown to be beneficial in a clinical trial of patients with Lynch syndrome, a hereditary CRC syndrome; in those treated with aspirin for at least two years, there was a 50% or more reduction in the risk of CRC commencing five years after randomization and after aspirin had been discontinued. A few observational studies have shown an increase in survival among patients with CRC who use aspirin. Taken together, these findings strengthen the case for consideration of long-term aspirin use in CRC prevention. Despite these compelling data, there is a lack of consensus about the balance of risks and benefits associated with long-term aspirin use, particularly in low-risk populations. The optimal dose to use for cancer prevention and the precise mechanism underlying aspirin's anticancer effect require further investigation.

PMID:
22084361
PMCID:
PMC3273592
DOI:
10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0391
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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