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Mol Microbiol. 2012 Jan;83(1):85-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07914.x. Epub 2011 Nov 20.

Furfural reduction mechanism of a zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator JMP134.

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School of Molecular Biosciences Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.


FurX is a tetrameric Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Cupriavidus necator JMP134. The enzyme rapidly reduces furfural with NADH as the reducing power. For the first time among characterized ADHs, the high-resolution structures of all reaction steps were obtained in a time-resolved manner, thereby illustrating the complete catalytic events of NADH-dependent reduction of furfural and the dynamic Zn(2+) coordination among Glu66, water, substrate and product. In the fully closed conformation of the NADH complex, the catalytic turnover proved faster than observed for the partially closed conformation due to an effective proton transfer network. The domain motion triggered by NAD(H) association/dissociation appeared to facilitate dynamic interchanges in Zn(2+) coordination with substrate and product molecules, ultimately increasing the enzymatic turnover rate. NAD(+) dissociation appeared to be a slow process, involving multiple steps in concert with a domain opening and reconfiguration of Glu66. This agrees with the report that the cofactor is not dissociated from FurX during ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural, in which ethanol reduces NAD(+) to NADH that is subsequently used for furfural reduction.

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