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Curr Opin Oncol. 2012 Jan;24(1):83-9. doi: 10.1097/CCO.0b013e32834d816a.

Altered cancer cell metabolism in gliomas with mutant IDH1 or IDH2.

Author information

1
Ludwig Collaborative Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

IDH1/2 mutations occur in up to 70% of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. Mutation of these enzymes reduces the wildtype function of the enzyme (conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate) while conferring a new enzymatic function, the production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) from α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). However, it is unclear how these enzymatic changes contribute to tumorigenesis. Here, we discuss the recent studies that demonstrate how IDH1/2 mutation may alter the metabolism and epigenome of gliomas, how these changes may contribute to tumor formation, and opportunities they might provide for molecular targeting.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Metabolomic studies of IDH1/2 mutant cells have revealed alterations in glutamine, fatty acid, and citrate synthesis pathways. Additionally, D-2-HG produced by IDH1/2 mutant cells can competitively inhibit α-KG-dependent enzymes, including histone demethylases and DNA hydroxylases, potentially leading to a distinct epigenetic phenotype. Alterations in metabolism and DNA methylation present possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis.

SUMMARY:

Recent attempts to improve outcomes for glioma patients have resulted in incremental gains. Studies of IDH1/2 mutations have provided mechanistic insights into tumorigenesis and potential avenues for therapeutic intervention. Further study of IDH1/2 mutations might allow for improved therapeutic strategies.

PMID:
22080945
PMCID:
PMC4612588
DOI:
10.1097/CCO.0b013e32834d816a
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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