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J Pharm Pract. 2012 Feb;25(1):61-8. doi: 10.1177/0897190011420677. Epub 2011 Nov 11.

Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

Author information

1
Adjunct Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice, Pharmacotherapy Consultant/Forensic Pharmacologist, Quincy, MA 02169, USA. pander7291@aol.com

Abstract

The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia.

PMID:
22080590
DOI:
10.1177/0897190011420677
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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