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Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Dec;53(12):1230-6. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir735.

Current epidemiology and trends in invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease--United States, 1989-2008.

Author information

1
Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. macneil@cdc.gov

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

With the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, there has been a dramatic reduction of Hib disease in young children and the epidemiological trends of invasive H. influenzae have shifted.

METHODS:

Data were collected from active surveillance for invasive H. influenzae disease conducted through Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites during 1989-2008.

RESULTS:

During 1999-2008, the estimated mean annual incidence of H. influenzae infection was 1.62 cases per 100 000 population; 15.3% of cases were fatal. Incidence was higher among adults aged ≥65 years, compared with other age groups. The largest burden of disease among children aged <5 years was in infants aged <1 year; many of these cases occurred during the first month of life in preterm or low-birth weight infants. An estimated 10% of the total burden of disease among children aged <5 years occurred in American Indian and Alaska Native children. During 1989-2008, 7559 cases of H. influenzae disease were reported from Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites. Small increases in the incidence of serotypes a, e, and f were observed during 1989-2008. The largest of these increases was in serotype f and was primarily among adults aged ≥18 years.

CONCLUSIONS:

Since the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccines, the incidence of invasive disease caused by H. influenzae in the United States has decreased dramatically; however, a considerable burden of non-Hib disease is still present in the oldest and youngest age groups. There is no evidence of substantial replacement disease with non-b serotypes in young children in the United States.

PMID:
22080119
DOI:
10.1093/cid/cir735
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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