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Ultrason Sonochem. 2012 May;19(3):701-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.10.010. Epub 2011 Oct 25.

Effect of ultrasound on the kinetics of cation exchange in NaX zeolite.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, İzmir, Turkey.


In this study, we focused on the effect of ultrasound on ion exchange kinetics to obtain the Li-, Ca- and Ce-rich NaX zeolite. The results were compared to those obtained from the traditional batch exchange method under similar conditions. Contact time and initial cation concentration (fold equivalent excess) were studied. Ultrasound enhanced the replacement of Na(+) ion with Li(+), Ca(2+) and Ce(3+) ions in the extra-framework of zeolite up to 76%, 72% and 66%, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion is the rate limiting step in the ion exchange for both exchange methods. As compared to the traditional exchange method, the ultrasonic method applied in this study was found to be very effective on the exchange amount at equilibrium.

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