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Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Jan 3;46(1):374-81. doi: 10.1021/es202494d. Epub 2011 Dec 8.

An immunoassay to evaluate human/environmental exposure to the antimicrobial triclocarban.

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Department of Entomology and the UCD Cancer Center, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616, United States.


A sensitive, competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) was developed. The haptens were synthesized by derivatizing the para position of a phenyl moiety of TCC. The rabbit antisera were screened and the combination of antiserum 1648 and a heterologous competitive hapten containing a piperidine was further characterized. The IC(50) and detection range for TCC in buffer were 0.70 and 0.13-3.60 ng/mL, respectively. The assay was selective for TCC, providing only low cross-reactivity to TCC-related compounds and its major metabolites except for the closely related antimicrobial 3-trifluoromethyl-4,4'-dichlorocarbanilide. A liquid-liquid extraction for sample preparation of human body fluids resulted in an assay that measured low part per billion levels of TCC in small volumes of the samples. The limits of quantification of TCC were 5 ng/mL in blood/serum and 10 ng/mL in urine, respectively. TCC in human urine was largely the N- or N'-glucuronide. TCC concentrations of biosolids measured by the ELISA were similar to those determined by LC-MS/MS. This immunoassay can be used as a rapid, inexpensive, and convenient tool to aid researchers monitoring human/environmental exposure to TCC to better understand the health effects.

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