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Biomed Opt Express. 2011 Nov 1;2(11):3135-49. doi: 10.1364/BOE.2.003135. Epub 2011 Oct 25.

Measurement and correction of in vivo sample aberrations employing a nonlinear guide-star in two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy.


We demonstrate that sample induced aberrations can be measured in a nonlinear microscope. This uses the fact that two-photon excited fluorescence naturally produces a localized point source inside the sample: the nonlinear guide-star (NL-GS). The wavefront emitted from the NL-GS can then be recorded using a Shack-Hartmann sensor. Compensation of the recorded sample aberrations is performed by the deformable mirror in a single-step. This technique is applied to fixed and in vivo biological samples, showing, in some cases, more than one order of magnitude improvement in the total collected signal intensity.


(170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (180.4315) Nonlinear microscopy; (190.4180) Multiphoton processes; (220.1000) Aberration compensation; (220.1080) Active or adaptive optics

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