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Eur Respir J. 2012 May;39(5):1136-43. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00151110. Epub 2011 Nov 10.

Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and sleepiness in real-life obstructive sleep apnoea.

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Biomedical Dept of Internal and Specialist Medicine, DIBIMIS, Section of Pneumology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.


The metabolic syndrome shows a variable prevalence in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and its association with insulin resistance or excessive daytime sleepiness in OSA is unclear. This study assessed the following in consecutive patients with newly diagnosed OSA: 1) the prevalence of metabolic syndrome; and 2) its association with insulin resistance and daytime sleepiness. Metabolic syndrome (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria), insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) index, n = 288) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed in 529 OSA patients. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 51.2%, which increased with OSA severity. Each metabolic syndrome component correlated with apnoea/hypopnoea index, but only blood pressure retained significance after correction for confounders. Both obesity and OSA contributed to metabolic abnormalities, with different sex-related patterns, since diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with neck circumference, age, body mass index and lowest arterial oxygen saturation in males, and with age and arousal index in females. The number of metabolic syndrome components increased with HOMA index (p<0.001). Prevalence of sleepiness was the same in patients with and without metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome occurs in about half of "real-life" OSA patients, irrespective of daytime sleepiness, and is a reliable marker of insulin resistance.

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