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Vaccine. 2012 Jan 17;30(4):813-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.10.087. Epub 2011 Nov 8.

Vaccination and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus in active component U.S. Military, 2002-2008.

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Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, United States.



To evaluate whether vaccination increases the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus in active component U.S. military personnel.


We conducted a retrospective cohort study among active component U.S. military personnel age 17-35 years. Individuals with first time diagnoses of type 1 diabetes between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2008 were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. We used Poisson regression to estimate risk ratios between individual vaccine exposures and type 1 diabetes. Secondary analyses were performed controlling for receipt of multiple vaccines and available demographic variables.


Our study population consisted of 2,385,102 individuals followed for approximately 7,644,098 person-years of service. This included 1074 incident type 1 diabetes cases. We observed no significant increased risk of type 1 diabetes after vaccination with anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) [RR=1.00; 95% CI (0.85, 1.17)], smallpox vaccine [RR=0.84; 95% (CI 0.70, 1.01)], typhoid vaccine [RR=1.03; 95% CI (0.87, 1.22)], hepatitis B vaccine [RR=0.83; 95% CI (0.72, 0.95)], measles mumps rubella vaccine (MMR) [RR=0.71, 95% CI (0.61, 0.83)], or yellow fever vaccine [RR=0.70; 95% CI (0.59, 0.82)].


We did not find an increased risk of diagnosed type 1 diabetes and any of the study vaccines. We recommend that follow-up studies using medical record review to confirm case status should be considered to corroborate these findings.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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