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Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jan;220(1):265-8. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.10.023. Epub 2011 Oct 25.

Vitamin D deficiency and endothelial dysfunction in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

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1
Renal and Transplantation Unit, St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust and Cardiovascular Sciences Research Centre, St Georges, University of London, Blackshaw Road, Tooting, London SW17 0QT, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cardiovascular (CV) events are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but inadequately explained by traditional risk factors. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in CKD and has been proposed to be a non-traditional risk factor, but its relationship with vascular function is unknown.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D levels and endothelial function in non-diabetes patients with mild to moderate CKD. Endothelial function was measured non-invasively using brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD). 25 hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. In 50 CKD patients (age 56±11 years, BMI 25±4kg/m(2), 46% females, 14% smokers, 86% hypertensives, 52% with dyslipidaemia) the mean vitamin D level was 53±33nmol/L (21±13ng/L). The mean FMD was 3.8±2.4%. Decreasing 25 hydroxy vitamin D levels were associated with decreasing FMD [r=0.44, p=0.001]. In multivariate analysis the association remained independent after adjustment with traditional risk factors (adjusted beta 0.451; t=3.46; p<0.002). Patients with low vitamin D (≤37.5nmol/L) demonstrated low FMD compared to patients with vitamin D values >37.5nmol/L (4.4±2.5% vs. 2.5±1.6%; p=0.007); however the traditional risk factors were similar between the two groups.

CONCLUSION:

This is the first demonstration of an association of vitamin D deficiency with abnormal vascular endothelial function in non-dialysis CKD patients. Further studies with intervention and exploration of the mechanism are needed to establish a cause effect relationship.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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