Send to

Choose Destination
Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2011 Sep-Oct;139(9-10):661-5.

Identical twins with "mirror image" anisometropia and esotropia.

Author information

Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia.



Identical twins account for 0.2% of the world population and 8% of all twins. A "mirror image" variation can be found in 25% of identical twins. Studies of twins assume a special place in human genetics due to the possibility of comparing genetic and other factors. We present two pairs of identical male twins with mirror-image astigmatism and esotropia.


The first was a pair of twelve-year old identical twins with "mirror image" myopic astigmatism. The Twin 1 had myopic astigmatism in the right eye, while the Twin 2 was affected by the left eye myopic astigmatism. The second was a pair of six-year old identical twins with esotropia and hypermetropic astigmatism. The Twin 1 had esotropia in the left eye, while the right eye was affected in the Twin 2. Esotropia was surgically corrected.


In this study we pointed to the role of genetic factors in the development of refractive error, as well as the type of strabismus. Refraction anomalies (myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism) are complex heterogeneous disorders and ideal for genetic investigation. The knowledge of genetic mechanisms involved in refractive error susceptibility may allow treatment to prevent progression or to further examine gene-environment interactions. We hope that this paper will initiate further investigation of refraction anomalies in twins and future multicentre studies, which, to our knowledge, have not been conducted in our country so far.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Serbian Medical Society
Loading ...
Support Center