Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Toxins (Basel). 2010 Jul;2(7):1848-80. doi: 10.3390/toxins2071848. Epub 2010 Jul 14.

The enterotoxicity of Clostridium difficile toxins.

Author information

1
Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, MA, 01536, USA. Xingmin.sun@tufts.edu

Abstract

The major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are two large exotoxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB). However, our understanding of the specific roles of these toxins in CDI is still evolving. It is now accepted that both toxins are enterotoxic and proinflammatory in the human intestine. Both purified TcdA and TcdB are capable of inducing the pathophysiology of CDI, although most studies have focused on TcdA. C. difficile toxins exert a wide array of biological activities by acting directly on intestinal epithelial cells. Alternatively, the toxins may target immune cells and neurons once the intestinal epithelial barrier is disrupted. The toxins may also act indirectly by stimulating cells to produce chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, neuropeptides and other neuroimmune signals. This review considers the mechanisms of TcdA- and TcdB-induced enterotoxicity, and recent developments in this field.

KEYWORDS:

Clostridium difficile; enterotoxicity; toxin A (TcdA); toxin B (TcdB)

PMID:
22069662
PMCID:
PMC3153265
DOI:
10.3390/toxins2071848
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center