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Toxins (Basel). 2010 Oct;2(10):2478-89. doi: 10.3390/toxins2102478. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

Biological and pathological studies of rosmarinic acid as an inhibitor of hemorrhagic Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu) venom.

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Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku, Nagoya, 468-8503, Japan.


In our previous report, rosmarinic acid (RA) was revealed to be an antidote active compound in Argusia argentea (family: Boraginaceae). The plant is locally used in Okinawa in Japan as an antidote for poisoning from snake venom, Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu). This article presents mechanistic evidence of RA's neutralization of the hemorrhagic effects of snake venom. Anti-hemorrhagic activity was assayed by using several kinds of snake venom. Inhibition against fibrinogen hydrolytic and collagen hydrolytic activities of T. flavoviridis venom were examined by SDS-PAGE. A histopathological study was done by microscopy after administration of venom in the presence or absence of RA. RA was found to markedly neutralize venom-induced hemorrhage, fibrinogenolysis, cytotoxicity and digestion of type IV collagen activity. Moreover, RA inhibited both hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltrations caused by T. flavoviridis venom in pathology sections. These results demonstrate that RA inhibited most of the hemorrhage effects of venom. These findings indicate that rosmarinic acid can be expected to provide therapeutic benefits in neutralization of snake venom accompanied by heat stability.


Argusia argentea; hemorrhage; metalloproteinase; rosmarinic acid; snake venom

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