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Toxins (Basel). 2009 Sep;1(1):37-58. doi: 10.3390/toxins1010037. Epub 2009 Sep 25.

Predicted roles of the uncharacterized clustered genes in aflatoxin biosynthesis.

Author information

1
Southern Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA/1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA. ken.ehrlich@ars.usda.gov

Abstract

Biosynthesis of the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs) requires the activity of more than 27 enzymes. The roles in biosynthesis of newly described enzymes are discussed in this review. We suggest that HypC catalyzes the oxidation of norsolorinic acid anthrone; AvfA (AflI), the ring-closure step in formation of hydroxyversicolorone; HypB, the second oxidation step in conversion of O-methylsterigmatocystin to AF; and HypE and NorA (AflE), the final two steps in AFB(1) formation. HypD, an integral membrane protein, affects fungal development and lowers AF production while AflJ (AflS), has a partial methyltransferase domain that may be important in its function as a transcriptional co-activator.

KEYWORDS:

Aspergillus; biosynthesis; enzymes; oxidation; secondary metabolism

PMID:
22069531
PMCID:
PMC3202775
DOI:
10.3390/toxins1010037
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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