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Viruses. 2011 Oct;3(10):1870-90. doi: 10.3390/v3101870. Epub 2011 Oct 13.

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) neutralization: a review.

Author information

1
Medical Research Council, University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Henry Wellcome Building for Comparative Medical Sciences, 464 Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. margaret.hosie@glasgow.ac.uk

Abstract

One of the major obstacles that must be overcome in the design of effective lentiviral vaccines is the ability of lentiviruses to evolve in order to escape from neutralizing antibodies. The primary target for neutralizing antibodies is the highly variable viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), a glycoprotein that is essential for viral entry and comprises both variable and conserved regions. As a result of the complex trimeric nature of Env, there is steric hindrance of conserved epitopes required for receptor binding so that these are not accessible to antibodies. Instead, the humoral response is targeted towards decoy immunodominant epitopes on variable domains such as the third hypervariable loop (V3) of Env. For feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as the related human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), little is known about the factors that lead to the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies. In cats infected with FIV and patients infected with HIV-1, only rarely are plasma samples found that contain antibodies capable of neutralizing isolates from other clades. In this review we examine the neutralizing response to FIV, comparing and contrasting with the response to HIV. We ask whether broadly neutralizing antibodies are induced by FIV infection and discuss the comparative value of studies of neutralizing antibodies in FIV infection for the development of more effective vaccine strategies against lentiviral infections in general, including HIV-1.

KEYWORDS:

FIV; feline immunodeficiency virus; neutralization; neutralizing antibody

PMID:
22069520
PMCID:
PMC3205386
DOI:
10.3390/v3101870
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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