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J Nucl Med. 2011 Dec;52(12):1930-7. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.111.095232. Epub 2011 Nov 8.

Clinical feasibility of fast 3-dimensional dosimetry of the liver for treatment planning of hepatocellular carcinoma with 90Y-microspheres.

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  • 1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Beaujon Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Clichy, France.


Several treatment strategies are used for selective internal radiation therapy with (90)Y-microspheres. The diversity of approaches does not favor the standardization of the prescribed activity calculation. To this aim, a fast 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry method was developed for (90)Y-microsphere treatment planning and was clinically evaluated retrospectively.


Our 3D approach is based on voxel S values (VSVs) and has been implemented in the software tool VoxelDose. VSVs were previously calculated at a fine voxel size. The time-integrated activity (TIA) map is derived from pretherapeutic (99m)Tc-macroaggregated-albumin SPECT/CT. The fine VSV map is resampled at the voxel size of the TIA map. Then, the TIA map is convolved with the resampled VSV map to construct the 3D dose map. Data for 10 patients with 12 tumor sites treated by (90)Y-microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma were collected retrospectively. 3D dose maps were computed for each patient, and tumoral liver and nontumoral liver (TL and NTL, respectively) were delineated, allowing the computation of descriptive statistics (i.e., mean absorbed dose, minimum absorbed dose, and maximum absorbed dose) and dose-volume histograms. Mean absorbed doses in TL and NTL from VoxelDose were compared with those calculated with the standard partition model.


The estimated processing time for a complete 3D dosimetry calculation is on the order of 15 min, including 10 s for the dose calculation (i.e., VSV resampling and convolution). An additional 45 min was needed for the semiautomatic and manual segmentation of TL and NTL. The mean absorbed dose (±SD) was 422 ± 263 Gy for TL and 50.1 ± 36.0 Gy for NTL. The comparison between VoxelDose and partition model shows a mean relative difference of 1.5% for TL and 4.4% for NTL. Results show a wide spread of voxel-dose values around mean absorbed dose. The minimum absorbed dose within TL ranges from 32 to 267 Gy (n = 12). The fraction of NTL volume irradiated with at least 80 Gy ranges from 4% to 70% (n = 10), and the absorbed dose from which 25% of NTL was the least irradiated ranges from 14 to 178 Gy.


This article demonstrates the feasibility of a fast 3D dosimetry method for (90)Y-microspheres and highlights the potential value of a 3D treatment planning strategy.

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