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Am J Hypertens. 2012 Jan;25(1):1-15. doi: 10.1038/ajh.2011.210. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

Effects of low-sodium diet vs. high-sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride (Cochrane Review).

Author information

1
Department of Rheumatology TA4242/Internal Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The question of whether reduced sodium intake is effective as a health prophylaxis initiative is unsolved. The purpose was to estimate the effects of low-sodium vs. high-sodium intake on blood pressure (BP), renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, and lipids.

METHODS:

Studies randomizing persons to low-sodium and high-sodium diets evaluating at least one of the above outcome parameters were included. Data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.1.

RESULTS:

A total of 167 studies were included. The effect of sodium reduction in: (i) Normotensives: Caucasians: systolic BP (SBP) -1.27 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -1.88, -0.66; P = 0.0001), diastolic BP (DBP) -0.05 mm Hg (95% CI: -0.51, 0.42; P = 0.85). Blacks: SBP -4.02 mm Hg (95% CI: -7.37, -0.68; P = 0.002), DBP -2.01 mm Hg (95% CI: -4.37, 0.35; P = 0.09). Asians: SBP -1.27 mm Hg (95% CI: -3.07, 0.54; P = 0.17), DBP -1.68 mm Hg (95% CI: -3.29, -0.06; P = 0.04). (ii) Hypertensives: Caucasians: SBP -5.48 mm Hg (95% CI: -6.53, -4.43; P < 0.00001), DBP -2.75 mm Hg (95% CI: -3.34, -2.17; P < 0.00001). Blacks: SBP -6.44 mm Hg (95% CI: -8.85, -4.03; P = 0.00001), DBP -2.40 mm Hg (95% CI: -4.68, -0.12; P = 0.04). Asians: SBP -10.21 mm Hg (95% CI: -16.98, -3.44; P = 0.003), DBP -2.60 mm Hg (95% CI: -4.03, -1.16; P = 0.0004). Sodium reduction resulted in significant increases in renin (P < 0.00001), aldosterone (P < 0.00001), noradrenaline (P < 0.00001), adrenaline (P < 0.0002), cholesterol (P < 0.001), and triglyceride (P < 0.0008).

CONCLUSIONS:

Sodium reduction resulted in a significant decrease in BP of 1% (normotensives), 3.5% (hypertensives), and a significant increase in plasma renin, plasma aldosterone, plasma adrenaline, and plasma noradrenaline, a 2.5% increase in cholesterol, and a 7% increase in triglyceride.

PMID:
22068710
DOI:
10.1038/ajh.2011.210
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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