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Contraception. 2012 Mar;85(3):288-93. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2011.09.001. Epub 2011 Oct 11.

Oral contraceptive and progestin-only use correlates to tissue tumor marker expression in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Falun Hospital, 79182 Falun, Sweden.



The study was conducted to investigate correlations between combined oral contraceptive (COC), any progestin-only contraceptive, medicated intrauterine device (MID) or systemic progestin-only (Syst-P) use and tumor marker expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia compared to nonusers.


One-hundred ninety-five women of fertile age with cervical biopsies ranging histologically from normal epithelium to carcinoma in situ were recruited consecutively. Combined oral contraceptive, Syst-P and MID users were investigated according to the expression of 11 tumor markers.


Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) was observed in COC users, while interleukin 10 was underexpressed. When users of progestogen-only contraceptives were analyzed, there was a lower expression of cytokeratin 10 and interleukin 10. When only MID users were analyzed, a high expression of p53 was found. Expression of Cox-2, p53 and retinoblastoma protein differed between COC and MID users.


The study showed molecular alterations, which, in general, have not been studied previously in COC users and have never been studied in progestogen-only users. These biological events might be involved in epidemiological correlations found between hormonal contraceptive use and cervical neoplasms.

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