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Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2012;64(1):34-47. doi: 10.1159/000331073.

Genetic bases of stuttering: the state of the art, 2011.

Author information

1
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. kraft@wayne.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The literature on the genetics of stuttering is reviewed with special reference to the historical development from psychosocial explanations leading up to current biological research of gene identification.

SUMMARY:

A gradual progression has been made from the early crude methods of counting percentages of stuttering probands who have relatives who stutter to recent studies using entire genomes of DNA collected from each participant. Despite the shortcomings of some early studies, investigators have accumulated a substantial body of data showing a large presence of familial stuttering. This encouraged more refined research in the form of twin studies. Concordance rates among twins were sufficiently high to lend additional support to the genetic perspective of stuttering. More sophisticated aggregation studies and segregation analyses followed, producing data that matched recognized genetic models, providing the final ‘go ahead’ to proceed from the behavior/statistical genetics into the sphere of biological genetics. Recent linkage and association studies have begun to reveal contributing genes to the disorder.

CONCLUSION:

No definitive findings have been made regarding which transmission model, chromosomes, genes, or sex factors are involved in the expression of stuttering in the population at large. Future research and clinical implications are discussed.

PMID:
22067705
PMCID:
PMC3696365
DOI:
10.1159/000331073
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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