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Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2011 Aug;31(4):207-15.

Minimally-invasive parathyroid surgery.

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Department of Surgery, Division of General and Endocrine Surgery, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome, Italy.


During the last two decades, several techniques for minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy have been developed, including open approaches (open minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy - OMI P), minimally-invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy (MI-RP), video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP), video-assisted parathyroidectomy through a lateral approach (VAP-LA) and purely endoscopic parathyroidectomy (EP). We have reviewed the pertinent literature, analyzing the indications, outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques. Even if the field of minimally-invasive parathyroidectomy is heterogeneous, there is some evidence that minimally-invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy (MIVAP) should be preferred over OMIP for better cosmetic outcomes, improved visualization of neck structures and control of pain. There is also low-level evidence that MIVAP has some advantages over other purely endoscopic procedures for parathyroidectomy and VAP-LA, in terms of technical difficulties, in addition to the possibility to perform bilateral exploration and associated procedures on the thyroid gland. While the data on medium-term results are encouraging, longer follow-up times are still needed to confirm its safety and rate of cure with respect to conventional surgery. It has been demonstrated that MIVAP is also feasible in secondary and familial hyperparathyroidism, although no conclusive data are available.


Endoscopic parathyroidectomy; Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy; Video-assisted parathyroidectomy

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