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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jan;56(1):526-31. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00702-11. Epub 2011 Nov 7.

Population pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in adults.

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The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, NIHR Translational Research Facility in Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom.


Voriconazole is a first-line agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. The pharmacology of voriconazole is characterized by extensive interindividual variability and nonlinear pharmacokinetics. The population pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in 64 adults is described. The patient population consisted of 21 healthy volunteers, who received a range of intravenous (i.v.) and oral voriconazole regimens, and 43 patients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis, who received the currently licensed dosage. Voriconazole concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pharmacokinetic data were modeled using a nonparametric methodology and with a nonlinear pharmacokinetic structural model. The extent and consequences of pharmacokinetic variability were explored using Monte Carlo simulation. The relationship between drug exposure and clinical response was explored using logistic regression. Optimal sampling times were identified using D-optimal design. The fit of the nonlinear model was acceptable. Data from the healthy volunteers provided robust estimates for K(m) and the maximum rate of enzyme activity (V(max)). The Bayesian parameter estimates were more variable and statistically different in patients than in volunteers. There was a linear relationship between the trough concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)). There was no relationship between the AUC(0-12) and clinical response. The original parameter values were readily recapitulated using Monte Carlo simulation. Initial i.v. dosing resulted in higher AUC(0-12) and trough concentrations compared with oral dosing. Sample collection times of 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 h after an i.v. infusion are maximally informative times for future pharmacokinetic studies.

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