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Meat Sci. 2001 Jun;58(2):163-6.

Biogenic amines produced by Enterobacteriaceae isolated from meat products.

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Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara, Ankara, Turkey.


Biogenic amines in ground meat and processed meat products are one of the indicators to determine the poor quality raw material. Major histamine forming bacterium was Escherichia coli (strain EC04 with 65.88 mg/100 ml in Brain Heart Infusion medium), followed by the microorganisms Morganella morganii (strain MM4 with 8.40 mg/100 ml and strain MM7 with 8.28 mg/100 ml) and Proteus mirabilis (strain PM02 with 8.76 mg/100 ml), respectively. The highest putrescine production level was found in Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter spp. strains, followed by Serratia grimesii, Proteus alcalifaciens, E. coli, Escherichia fergusonii, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus penneri and Hafnia alvei, respectively. The most important cadaverine producer was E. coli EC03 with a production level of 45.48 mg/100 ml, and of the strains Escherichia vulnaris EV01, Escherichia fergusonii EF06 produced 37.92 mg/100ml and 35.40 mg/100 ml, respectively. On the basis of our results, it can be concluded that the major biogenic amines produced by Enterobacteriaceae are putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and histamine, both in culture medium and meat products.

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