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Endoscopy. 2011 Dec;43(12):1105-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1256961. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided anterograde treatment of biliary stones following gastric bypass.

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Interventional Endoscopy Services, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94115, USA.


Endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones in gastric bypass patients is challenging. We describe a novel method involving endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided anterograde interventions. After prior experience with EUS-guided rendezvous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and direct EUS-guided anterograde stenting for malignant biliary obstruction, we have attempted EUS-guided treatment of biliary stones as first-line therapy following gastric bypass. Our approach involves: (i) EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) puncture into an intrahepatic bile duct; (ii) EUS-guided cholangiography; (iii) guide wire advancement across the ampulla; (iv) catheter dilation of the transhepatic-transgastric access tract; (v) anterograde balloon sphincteroplasty; and (vi) anterograde advancement of stones across the ampulla using a balloon catheter. We reviewed outcomes and complications of this technique. Six patients with previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were referred for treatment of symptomatic choledocholithiasis. EUS-guided transhepatic puncture and cholangiography was successful in 100 %, and revealed choledocholithiasis in all patients. Tract dilation, anterograde balloon sphincteroplasty, and stone extraction were successful in four (67 %). Anterograde sphincteroplasty failed in two patients due to inability to advance the transhepatic dilation catheters. In both cases, wires were advanced down the afferent limb, and rendezvous ERCP using double-balloon enteroscopy was successful. Five patients experienced no complications. One patient in whom EUS anterograde therapy failed due to difficulty in advancing the transhepatic dilation catheter, developed a subcapsular hepatic hematoma. This was managed conservatively. Direct EUS-guided treatment of biliary stones after gastric bypass appears safe and feasible. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of this technique.

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