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Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012 Apr;16(2):244-9. doi: 10.1007/s10157-011-0551-9. Epub 2011 Nov 8.

Risk factor profiles based on estimated glomerular filtration rate and dipstick proteinuria among participants of the Specific Health Check and Guidance System in Japan 2008.

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Dialysis Unit, University Hospital of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa, 903-0215, Japan.



Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria (proteinuria) are both important determinants of the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality. Few studies, however, have examined the risk factor profiles based on eGFR and proteinuria among the general population.


Data of the newly developed nationwide screening program of the Specific Health Check-up and Guidance System (Tokutei-Kensin) initiated in 2008 were used in this study. The aim of this screening, targeting people 40-74 years of age, was to detect those with metabolic syndrome and to offer those services regarding lifestyle modifications that will lead to the reduction of diabetes mellitus (DM) and DM-related ESRD. Individual records of 580,000 participants in 69 cities and towns and 3 union cohorts throughout Japan were anonymously provided and included in the present study.


Details of 332,174 participants (57.3% of the total) with both serum creatinine and dipstick urine test data were analyzed. Mean (SD) age was 63.6 (8.3) years and 40.6% were men. The mean (SD) eGFR was 75.0 (16.2) ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 5.4% had proteinuria. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3, 4, and 5 was 14.2%, 0.2%, and 0.07%, respectively. The prevalence of DM, hypertension, and history of stroke and heart disease was correlated with the combination of eGFR and degree of proteinuria.


The findings of the present study indicate that CKD and risk factors for CVD are quite common among middle-aged Japanese. CKD classification based on eGFR and proteinuria may be useful for predicting CVD, mortality rate, and ESRD in the Japanese population.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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