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Clin Chest Med. 2011 Dec;32(4):799-810. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2011.08.002. Epub 2011 Oct 2.

Approach to the ground-glass nodule.

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Yale Thoracic Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, 330 Cedar Street, PO Box 208062, New Haven, CT 06520-8062, USA.


The detection of ground-glass opacity (GGO) is increasingly common. Sufficient data have been accumulated to formulate recommendations for observation, intervention, and treatment modalities. However, an understanding of many nuances and uncertainties in the available data is needed to avoid making management errors. This article discusses the range of possible entities, risk factors and characteristics that help make a presumptive clinical diagnosis, how often and for how long these should be followed when and how a biopsy should be done, how these lesions should be treated, and how multifocal GGOs should be approached.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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