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PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e26572. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026572. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

Effectiveness of pandemic H1N1-2009 vaccination in reducing laboratory confirmed influenza infections among military recruits in tropical Singapore.

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  • 1Biodefence Centre, Ministry of Defence, Singapore, Singapore.



Limited information is available about pandemic H1N1-2009 influenza vaccine effectiveness in tropical communities. We studied the effectiveness of a pandemic H1N1 vaccination program in reducing influenza cases in Singapore.


A surveillance study was conducted among military personnel presenting with febrile respiratory illness from mid-2009 to mid-2010. Consenting individuals underwent nasal washes, which were tested with RT-PCR and subtyped. A vaccination program (inactivated monovalent Panvax H1N1-2009 vaccine) was carried out among recruits. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to quantify relative risks in the pre- and post-vaccination periods. An autoregressive generalised linear model (GLM) was developed to minimise confounding.


Of 2858 participants, 437 (15.3%), 60 (2.1%), and 273 (9.6%) had pandemic H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B. The ratio of relative risks for pandemic H1N1 infection before and after vaccination for the recruit camp relative to other camps was 0.14 (0.016,0.49); for H3N2, 0.44 (0.035,1.8); and for influenza B, 18 (0.77,89). Using the GLM for the recruit camp, post-vaccination weekly cases decreased by 54% (37%,67%, p<0.001) from that expected without vaccination; influenza B increased by 66 times (9-479 times, p<0.001); with no statistical difference for H3N2 (pā€Š=ā€Š0.54).


Pandemic vaccination reduced H1N1-2009 disease burden among military recruits. Routine seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered.

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