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J Reprod Dev. 2012;58(1):98-104. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Anti-Müllerian hormone profiles as a novel biomarker to diagnose granulosa-theca cell tumors in cattle.

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Laboratory of Theriogenology, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.


This study was carried out to evaluate the blood profile and tissue expression of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a biomarker for granulosa-theca cell tumors (GTCTs) in cattle. Five cases with unilateral ovarian GTCTs (GTCT group) were investigated in comparison to other groups of Japanese Black cows, which had either cystic ovarian disease (COD group, n=5), a functional corpus luteum on Days 9 to 11 of the estrous cycle (Day 0=estrus; CL group, n=13) or received superovulation treatment (SOT group, n=13). We used transrectal ultrasonography and measured plasma AMH, estradiol-17β (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)) and testosterone (T) levels. Moreover, GTCT tissues were collected and examined by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for AMH. In the GTCT group, ultrasound images of GTCTs were variable and not definitive. However, the AMH level in the GTCT group (n=3, 58.1 ± 66.3 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in the COD, CL and SOT groups (0.1 ± 0.1 ng/ml for GTCT vs. COD, P<0.05; 0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.2 ng/ml, respectively for GTCT vs. CL and SOT, P<0.01). The other hormonal levels in the GTCT group had no significant differences compared with the COD or SOT group. Neoplastic granulosa cells labeled with AMH antibody clearly demonstrated a variety of tissue patterns in all cases by IHC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the blood profile and IHC of AMH in bovine GTCTs. Our findings indicate that AMH may be a novel biomarker to diagnose GTCTs in cattle.

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