Send to

Choose Destination
Trends Plant Sci. 2012 Jan;17(1):39-46. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2011.10.002. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Function and evolution of 'green' GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases.

Author information

School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom.


Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins, also known as SHAGGY-like kinases, have many important cell signalling roles in animals, fungi and amoebae. In particular, GSK3s participate in key developmental signalling pathways and also regulate the cytoskeleton. GSK3-encoding genes are also present in all land plants and in algae and protists, raising questions about possible ancestral functions in eukaryotes. Recent studies have revealed that plant GSK3 proteins are actively implicated in hormonal signalling networks during development as well as in biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this review, we outline the mechanisms of Arabidopsis GSK3 action, summarize GSK3 functions in dicot and monocot flowering plants, and speculate on the possible functions of GSK3s in the earliest-evolving land plants.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center