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Nutr Cancer. 2011 Nov;63(8):1256-62. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2011.609307. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Effect of freeze-dried berries on the development of reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma.

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Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.


The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in humans is increasing more rapidly than any other malignancy in the United States. Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of freeze-dried berry supplementation on carcinogen-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in rats; however, no such studies have been done in esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA), an animal model for reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) development. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: EDA + control diet (EDA-CD; n = 10); EDA + 2.5% black raspberry diet (EDA-BRB; n = 11) and EDA + 2.5% blueberry diet (EDA-BB; n = 12). After 2 wk of feeding the respective diets, the rats underwent EDA surgery to induce gastroesophageal reflux and then continued the diet. Measurement of feed intake suggested that all EDA-operated animals had lower feed intake starting at 10 wk after surgery and this was significant close to termination at 24 wk. There were no significant differences in either reflux esophagitis (RE), intestinal metaplasia (IM) (70% in CD, 64% in BRB, and 66% in BB; P = 0.1) or EAC incidence (30% for CD, 34% for BRB, and 25% for BB; P = 0.2) with supplementation. Berry diets did not alter COX-2 levels, but BB diet significantly reduced MnSOD levels (1.23 ± 0.2) compared to control diet (2.05 ± 0.14; P < 0.05). We conclude that a dietary supplementation of freeze-dried BRB and BB at 2.5% (w/w) was not effective in the prevention of reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma in this EDA animal model.

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