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PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25790. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025790. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

The atypical stimulant and nootropic modafinil interacts with the dopamine transporter in a different manner than classical cocaine-like inhibitors.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.

Erratum in

  • PLoS One. 2012;7(1): doi.10.1371/annotation/ba711a7c-13fb-4d18-89a8-28dcc68fcd04..

Abstract

Modafinil is a mild psychostimulant with pro-cognitive and antidepressant effects. Unlike many conventional stimulants, modafinil has little appreciable potential for abuse, making it a promising therapeutic agent for cocaine addiction. The chief molecular target of modafinil is the dopamine transporter (DAT); however, the mechanistic details underlying modafinil's unique effects remain unknown. Recent studies suggest that the conformational effects of a given DAT ligand influence the magnitude of the ligand's reinforcing properties. For example, the atypical DAT inhibitors benztropine and GBR12909 do not share cocaine's notorious addictive liability, despite having greater binding affinity. Here, we show that the binding mechanism of modafinil is different than cocaine and similar to other atypical inhibitors. We previously established two mutations (W84L and D313N) that increase the likelihood that the DAT will adopt an outward-facing conformational state--these mutations increase the affinity of cocaine-like inhibitors considerably, but have little or opposite effect on atypical inhibitor binding. Thus, a compound's WT/mutant affinity ratio can indicate whether the compound preferentially interacts with a more outward- or inward-facing conformational state. Modafinil displayed affinity ratios similar to those of benztropine, GBR12909 and bupropion (which lack cocaine-like effects in humans), but far different than those of cocaine, β-CFT or methylphenidate. Whereas treatment with zinc (known to stabilize an outward-facing transporter state) increased the affinity of cocaine and methylphenidate two-fold, it had little or no effect on the binding of modafinil, benztropine, bupropion or GBR12909. Additionally, computational modeling of inhibitor binding indicated that while β-CFT and methylphenidate stabilize an "open-to-out" conformation, binding of either modafinil or bupropion gives rise to a more closed conformation. Our findings highlight a mechanistic difference between modafinil and cocaine-like stimulants and further demonstrate that the conformational effects of a given DAT inhibitor influence its phenomenological effects.

PMID:
22043293
PMCID:
PMC3197159
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0025790
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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