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Epidemiol Infect. 2012 Sep;140(9):1533-41. doi: 10.1017/S0950268811001968. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Mortality due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in England: a comparison of the first and second waves.

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  • 1Department of Health, Richmond House, Whitehall, London, UK.


Deaths in England attributable to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 deaths were investigated through a mandatory reporting system. The pandemic came in two waves. The second caused greater population mortality than the first (5·4 vs. 1·6 deaths per million, P<0·001). Mortality was particularly high in those with chronic neurological disease, chronic heart disease and immune suppression (450, 100, and 94 deaths per million, respectively); significantly higher than in those with chronic respiratory disease (39 per million) and those with no risk factors (2·4 per million). Greater mortality in the second wave has been observed in all previous influenza pandemics. This time, the explanation appears to be behavioural. This emphasizes the importance of maintaining public and clinical awareness of risks associated with pandemic influenza beyond the initial high-profile period.

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