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BJU Int. 2012 Jun;109(12):1781-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10561.x. Epub 2011 Oct 31.

Infection after transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy: increased relative risks after recent international travel or antibiotic use.

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1
The Prostate Centre, London, UK. drudaypatel@gmail.com

Abstract

Study Type - Prognosis (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Septicaemia is the most frequent cause of hospitalization after transtrectal prostate biopsy; fatalities have been reported and the incidence is on the rise. This study shows that men with a history of recent international travel or antibiotic use have up to four times increased risk of septicaemia and hospitalization. When they do occur, infections are usually due to multi-resistant E coli and additional care, e.g. delay before biopsy, different antibiotic prophylaxis or transperineal biopsy, should be considered in these cases. OBJECTIVE • To study the infection rate after prostate biopsy in those who have travelled overseas or used antibiotics in the 4 weeks before biopsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS • A total of 316 men with a mean (range) age of 61 (45-85) years were studied. All had undergone transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy after standard antibiotic prophylaxis. • Before their biopsy the patients were risk stratified and a history of recent international travel or antibiotic use was recorded. • Those who suffered sufficiently severe infection/sepsis so as to require hospitalization were identified at the end of the study period. • The characteristics of these patients and the types of infections were explored and the relative risk (RR) of infection after recent travel or antibiotic use was calculated. RESULTS • Of the 316 men, 16 were hospitalized with infection. • The group with (n= 16) and without (n= 300) infection were equivalent in age, prostate-specific antigen level, disease status and number of biopsy cores taken. • Either recent travel or antibiotic use were independent risk factors for infection [travel: 8/16 vs 76/300; P= 0.04; RR 2.7 and antibiotic use: 4/16 vs 20/300; P= 0.025; RR 4]. There was no significant pattern in the countries visited or the type of antibiotic used. • Culture results were positive in 10/16 men, and all cultures grew multiresistant Escherichia coli. The strains were uniformly resistant to ciprofloxacin and amoxycillin, and variably resistant to gentamicin and co-amoxiclav, but nearly all were sensitive to meropenem. • All patients made a full recovery after antibiotic and supportive treatment. CONCLUSIONS • Either recent international travel or antibiotic use are independent risk factors for severe infection after TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. • When infection does occur it should be treated aggressively as the causative agent is usually a multiresistant E. coli.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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