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BMC Infect Dis. 2011 Oct 31;11:297. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-297.

Retrospective study of necrotizing fasciitis and characterization of its associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biopharmaceuticals, National Chiayi University, No 300, University Road, Chiayi, 60004, Taiwan, ROC.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a prevalent pathogen of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in Taiwan. A four-year NF cases and clinical and genetic differences between hospital acquired (HA)- and community-acquired (CA)-MRSA infection and isolates were investigated.

METHODS:

A retrospective study of 247 NF cases in 2004-2008 and antimicrobial susceptibilities, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) types, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, virulence factors, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 16 NF-associated MRSA in 2008 were also evaluated.

RESULTS:

In 247 cases, 42 microbial species were identified. S. aureus was the major prevalent pathogen and MRSA accounted for 19.8% of NF cases. Most patients had many coexisting medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus, followed by hypertension, chronic azotemia and chronic hepatic disease in order of decreasing prevalence. Patients with MRSA infection tended to have more severe clinical outcomes in terms of amputation rate (p < 0.05) and reconstruction rate (p = 0.001) than those with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus or non-S. aureus infection. NF patients infected by HA-MRSA had a significantly higher amputation rate, comorbidity, C-reactive protein level, and involvement of lower extremity than those infected by CA-MRSA. In addition to over 90% of MRSA resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, HA-MRSA was more resistant than CA-MRSA to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (45.8% vs. 4%). ST59/pulsotype C/SCCmec IV and ST239/pulsotype A/SCCmec III isolates were the most prevalent CA- and HA-MRSA, respectively in 16 isolates obtained in 2008. In contrast to the gene for γ-hemolysin found in all MRSA, the gene for Panton-Valentine leukocidin was only identified in ST59 MRSA isolates. Other three virulence factors TSST-1, ETA, and ETB were occasionally identified in MRSA isolates tested.

CONCLUSION:

NF patients with MRSA infection, especially HA-MRSA infection, had more severe clinical outcomes than those infected by other microbial. The prevalent NF-associated MRSA clones in Taiwan differed distinctly from the most predominant NF-associated USA300 CA-MRSA clone in the USA. Initial empiric antimicrobials with a broad coverage for MRSA should be considered in the treatment of NF patients in an endemic area.

PMID:
22040231
PMCID:
PMC3221646
DOI:
10.1186/1471-2334-11-297
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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