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Phys Med Biol. 2011 Nov 21;56(22):7247-56. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/56/22/015. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

Shot sequencing based on biological equivalent dose considerations for multiple isocenter Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

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  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


Rapid delivery of multiple shots or isocenters is one of the hallmarks of Gamma Knife radiosurgery. In this study, we investigated whether the temporal order of shots delivered with Gamma Knife Perfexion would significantly influence the biological equivalent dose for complex multi-isocenter treatments. Twenty single-target cases were selected for analysis. For each case, 3D dose matrices of individual shots were extracted and single-fraction equivalent uniform dose (sEUD) values were determined for all possible shot delivery sequences, corresponding to different patterns of temporal dose delivery within the target. We found significant variations in the sEUD values among these sequences exceeding 15% for certain cases. However, the sequences for the actual treatment delivery were found to agree (<3%) and to correlate (R² = 0.98) excellently with the sequences yielding the maximum sEUD values for all studied cases. This result is applicable for both fast and slow growing tumors with α/β values of 2 to 20 according to the linear-quadratic model. In conclusion, despite large potential variations in different shot sequences for multi-isocenter Gamma Knife treatments, current clinical delivery sequences exhibited consistent biological target dosing that approached that maximally achievable for all studied cases.

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