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J Diabetes Complications. 2011 Nov-Dec;25(6):371-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2011.08.001. Epub 2011 Oct 27.

Differential effects of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on inflammation and endothelial function in diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. ndavis@montefiore.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To characterize acute (postprandial) and chronic (after a 6-month period of weight loss) effects of a low-carbohydrate vs. a low-fat diet on subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults with type 2 diabetes.

DESIGN:

At baseline and 6 months, measures of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and soluble E-selectin were obtained from archived samples (n = 51) of participants randomized in a clinical trial comparing a low-carbohydrate and a low-fat diet. In a subset of participants (n = 27), postprandial measures of these markers were obtained 3 h after a low-carbohydrate or low-fat liquid meal. Endothelial function was also measured by reactive hyperemic peripheral arterial tonometry during the meal test. Paired t tests and unpaired t tests compared within- and between-group changes.

RESULTS:

There were no significant differences observed in postprandial measures of inflammation or endothelial function. After 6 months, CRP (mean ± S.E.) decreased in the low-fat arm from 4.0 ± 0.77 to 3.0 ± 0.77 (P = .01). In the low-carbohydrate arm, sICAM decreased from 234 ± 22 to 199 ± 23 (P = .001), and soluble E-selectin decreased from 93 ± 10 to 82 ± 10 (P = .05.) A significant correlation between change in high-density lipoprotein and change in soluble E-selectin (r = -0.33, P = .04) and with the change in ICAM (r = -0.43, P = .01) was observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets both have beneficial effects on CVD markers. There may be different mechanisms through which weight loss with these diets potentially reduces CVD risk.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00795691.

PMID:
22036100
DOI:
10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2011.08.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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