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PM R. 2011 Oct;3(10 Suppl 2):S452-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.07.014.

Biomarkers, genetics, and risk factors for concussion.

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Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Center, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.


It is estimated that between 1.6 and 3.8 million concussions occur annually in the United States. Although frequently regarded as benign, concussions can lead to multiple different adverse outcomes, including prolonged postconcussive symptoms, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, early onset dementia, movement disorders, psychiatric disorders, motor neuron disease, and even death. Therefore it is important to identify individuals with concussion to provide appropriate medical care and minimize adverse outcomes. Furthermore, it is important to identify individuals who are predisposed to sustaining a concussion or to having an adverse outcome after concussion. This article will discuss the current research on serum biomarkers for concussion, genetic influence on concussion, risk factors associated with concussion predisposition and poor outcome, and practical suggestions for the application of this information in clinical practice.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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