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Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2003 Sep;5(3):299-305.

Combination pharmacotherapy in Alzheimer's disease.

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Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Administration Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA; Alzheimer's Research and Clinical Programs, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.


Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, debilitating form of dementia affecting more than 18 million people worldwide. Without a cure, many patients and their families must turn to long-term care institutions during the later stages of the disease. Our current treatments only delay progression and help control behavioral symptoms. In recent years, research within this field has expanded to include many clinical trials on potential drug therapies. However, despite the numerous studies, the enigma of this disease remains. It is difficult yet necessary, to stay abreast of emerging information that may warrant changes in current therapy. Rationale for combination therapy becomes evident as we review the multiple neurochemical pathways common to the disease. This paper will review available information on Alzheimer's disease pharmacotherapy, and evaluate data on the use of combination drug therapy. Individual efficacy, possible synergistic effects, and the safety of combination therapy will also be addressed.


Alzheimer's disease; Gingko biloba; NSAID; adverse effect; combination therapy; donezepil; memantine; neurochemical pathway

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