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Vaccine. 2011 Dec 6;29(52):9588-99. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.10.033. Epub 2011 Oct 25.

School-based vaccination: a systematic review of process evaluations.

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Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney, Australia.



School-based vaccination is becoming a more widely used method of vaccine delivery. However, evaluations of school-based vaccination program implementation have not been systematically reviewed. This paper describes the results of a systematic review of the literature on process (or implementation) evaluations of school-based vaccination delivery.


Search terms: "school based vaccination" OR (("schools" OR "school") AND ("immunisation" OR "immunization" OR "vaccination")).


Humans; English language; Age: 6-18 (school-age children and adolescents); No editorials; No letters. Databases: PUBMED;; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Cinahl; Web of Science; PsycINFO. Inclusions: Articles must have originated from an advanced economic 'developed' country, be peer-reviewed, available in English, randomised or non-randomised controlled design, published from 1970 to August 2010 and focused on vaccinations provided in the school setting and during school time which reported one or more outcomes.


qualitative or descriptive papers without any evaluation component; papers that only reported on impact evaluation (i.e. number of students vaccinated); and those published before 1970.


A total of 14 articles were identified as including some element of a process evaluation of a school-based vaccination program. Nurses, parents, teachers, and adolescents were involved in measures of procedural factors related to school-based vaccination implementation. Outcomes included return rates of consent forms; knowledge about the specific vaccine offered; attitudes toward vaccination and school-based vaccination; reasons for non-vaccination; resources, support, and procedures related to implementation; and environmental factors within the school that may impact vaccination success. Vaccination coverage was also reported in the majority of papers.


Many studies reported on the importance of ensuring all stakeholders (school nurses, parents, teachers, and adolescents) receive appropriate information and are involved in the vaccination program and implementation processes. Specific consent form dissemination procedures have demonstrated higher return rates. Further controlled studies are needed to determine the best practice approach to implementing these programs is a variety of contexts.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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