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J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Dec;92(1-2):103-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jri.2011.08.006. Epub 2011 Oct 26.

Dydrogesterone supplementation in women with threatened preterm delivery--the impact on cytokine profile, hormone profile, and progesterone-induced blocking factor.

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  • 1Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Clinical Center Tuzla, Trnovac bb, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Progesterone is indispensable in creating a suitable endometrial environment for implantation, and also for the maintenance of pregnancy. Successful pregnancy depends on an appropriate maternal immune response to the fetus. A protein called progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) acts by inducing Th2-dominant cytokine production to mediate the immunological effects of progesterone. The aim of this prospective study was to compare serum concentrations of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ) cytokines, and serum PIBF concentrations in women with threatened preterm delivery who were given progesterone supplementation (study group) with those of women with threatened preterm delivery who were not given progesterone supplementation (control group). After dydrogesterone treatment of patients in the study group, serum PIBF as well as progesterone concentrations significantly increased. Women in this group had significantly higher serum levels of IL-10 than controls. The length of gestation was significantly higher in the group of women who were given progesterone supplementation. Our data suggest that dydrogesterone treatment of women at risk of preterm delivery results in increased PIBF production and IL-10 concentrations, and lower concentrations of IFNγ.

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