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J Dairy Sci. 2011 Nov;94(11):5673-82. doi: 10.3168/jds.2011-4500.

Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss.

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Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA.


Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors allow genomic and pedigree relationships to match more closely within breeds and in multibreed populations and were estimated using means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships and allele frequencies in base populations. Correlations of genomic relationships with pedigree inbreeding were higher within each breed when an allele frequency of 0.5, rather than base population frequencies, was used, whereas correlations of average genomic relationships with average pedigree relationships and also reliabilities of genomic evaluations were higher using base population frequencies. Allele frequencies differed in the 3 breeds and were correlated by 0.65 to 0.67 when estimated from genotyped animals compared with 0.72 to 0.74 when estimated from breed base populations. The largest difference in allele frequency was between Holstein and the other breeds on chromosome Bos taurus autosome 4 near a gene affecting appearance of white skin patches (vitiligo) in humans. Each animal's breed composition was predicted very accurately with a standard deviation of <3% using regressions on genotypes at all loci or less accurately with a standard deviation of <6% using subsets of loci. Genomic future inbreeding (half an animal's mean genomic relationship to current animals of the same breed) was correlated by 0.75 to 0.94 with expected future inbreeding (half the average pedigree relationship). Correlations of both were slightly higher with parent averages than with genomic evaluations for net merit of young Holstein bulls. Thus, rates of increase in genomic and pedigree inbreeding per generation should be slightly reduced with genomic selection, in agreement with previous simulations. Genomic inbreeding and future inbreeding have been provided with individual genomic predictions since 2008. New methods to adjust pedigree and genomic relationship matrices so that they match may provide an improved basis for multibreed genomic evaluation. Positive definite matrices can be obtained by adjusting pedigree relationships for covariances among base animals within breed, whereas adjusting genomic relationships to match pedigree relationships can introduce negative eigenvalues. Pedigree relationship matrices ignore common ancestry shared by base animals within breed and may not approximate genomic relationships well in multibreed populations.

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