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J Pediatr Urol. 2011 Dec;7(6):585-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2011.09.005. Epub 2011 Oct 24.

Polymorphisms of MAMLD1 gene in hypospadias.

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1
Service d'Hormonologie, Hôpital Lapeyronie, CHU de Montpellier et UM1, Montpellier, France.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Mastermind-like domain containing 1 (MAMLD1) is a causative gene for the fetal development of male external genitalia. Almost 10% of patients with both severe and non-severe hypospadias exhibit mutations of MAMLD1. The aim of this work was to determine whether polymorphisms of MAMLD1 are a genetic risk factor for hypospadias.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

This study included 150 hypospadias with a range of severities and 150 controls. Direct sequencing of the MAMLD1 coding exons and their flanking splice sites was performed. In silico secondary and tertiary structure prediction and accessibility of changed amino acids were evaluated using JPred, Netsurf and PHYRE software. Functional studies of the transactivation of haplotypes on Hes3 promoter were performed in vitro using cDNAs of missense variants of MAMLD1.

RESULTS:

The p.P286S polymorphism was identified in 17/150 patients and 12/150 controls (11.3% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.32). The p.N589S polymorphism was identified in 22/150 patients and 12/150 controls (14.6% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.068). The double polymorphism (S-S haplotype) was present in 16/150 patients and 6/150 controls (10.6% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.044, OR = 2.87, CI from 1.09 to 7.55). The association of polymorphisms consistently revealed a modification in the structure prediction or amino acid accessibility in all three in silico models. The P286S, N589S and P286S + N589S proteins did not exhibit reduced transactivating activity on Hes3 promoter.

CONCLUSION:

Polymorphisms of MAMLD1 gene are frequent in patients with hypospadias. Although no change in transactivation was noted on Hes3 promoter, the in silico studies and the significantly increased incidence of the S-S haplotype in hypospadiac patients raise the hypothesis of a particular susceptibility conferred by these variants.

PMID:
22030455
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpurol.2011.09.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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