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Vaccine. 2011 Nov 28;29(51):9431-40. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.10.037. Epub 2011 Oct 24.

Increased efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease capsid subunit vaccine expressing nonstructural protein 2B is associated with a specific T cell response.

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Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, NAA, P.O. Box 848, Greenport, NY 11944, United States.


We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 capsid subunit vaccine, Ad5-A24, expressed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV) can protect swine and bovines against homologous challenge, but in a similar approach using swine vaccinated with an Ad5-vectored FMDV O1 Campos vaccine, Ad5-O1C, the animals were only partially protected when challenged at 21 days post-vaccination (dpv). Recently, we demonstrated that inclusion of the complete coding region of nonstructural protein 2B in the Ad5-A24 vector resulted in improved immune responses in pigs. We also found that inclusion of a modified CMV promoter (pCI), Ad5-CI-A24-2B, enhanced the efficacy of the vector. To address the limited immunogenicity of Ad5-O1C, we have produced a new set of Ad5 vectors with the complete 2B coding region under the control of either the original or the modified version of the CMV promoter, Ad5-O1C-2B, or Ad5-CI-O1C-2B, respectively. To evaluate the potency and efficacy of the new vectors we performed 2 sets of experiments in cattle. In the first experiment we compared the original vector with vectors containing the pCI promoter and partial or full-length 2B. All groups were challenged, intradermally in the tongue, at 21 dpv with FMDV O1C. We found that in all vaccinated groups 2 of 4 animals were protected from clinical disease. In the second experiment we directly compared the efficacy of vectors with a partial or full-length 2B under the control of the original CMV promoter. While all animals in the control group developed clinical disease, 2 of 4 animals in the group receiving Ad5-O1C vaccine and 3 of 4 animals in the group receiving Ad5-O1C-2B vaccine were completely protected after challenge. We also observed a 100-fold reduction of virus shedding in Ad5-O1C vaccinated animals and the group receiving Ad5-O1C-2B had an additional 10-fold reduction compared with the Ad5-O1C vaccinated group. There was no difference in the level of neutralizing antibodies in the vaccinated groups. However, we detected a significant antigen specific-CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell response as early as 1 day post-challenge (dpc) in both Ad5-O1C and Ad5-O1C-2B groups. Interestingly, the group receiving Ad5-O1C-2B had a statistically significant higher antigen specific-CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell response at 5 dpc and 3 and 5 dpc, respectively, as compared to the Ad5-O1C inoculated group. These results indicate that inclusion of the complete 2B coding region improves the efficacy of Ad5 vaccines against FMDV serotype O and induces specific-CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses that correlate with protection.

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