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Phys Rev Lett. 2011 Sep 23;107(13):130401. Epub 2011 Sep 19.

Exploring the thermodynamics of a two-dimensional Bose gas.

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Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, CNRS, UPMC, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France.


Using in situ measurements on a quasi-two-dimensional, harmonically trapped (87)Rb gas, we infer various equations of state for the equivalent homogeneous fluid. From the dependence of the total atom number and the central density of our clouds with chemical potential and temperature, we obtain the equations of state for the pressure and the phase-space density. Then, using the approximate scale invariance of this 2D system, we determine the entropy per particle and find very low values (below 0.1k(B)) in the strongly degenerate regime. This shows that this gas can constitute an efficient coolant for other quantum fluids. We also explain how to disentangle the various contributions (kinetic, potential, interaction) to the energy of the trapped gas using a time-of-flight method, from which we infer the reduction of density fluctuations in a nonfully coherent cloud.

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