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Biomarkers. 2011 Nov;16(7):537-52. doi: 10.3109/1354750X.2011.598564.

A review of candidate urinary biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder.

Author information

1
Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Autism is a complex, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition with a strong genetic component potentially impacted by various environmental factors influencing susceptibility. There are no reliable laboratory tests available to confirm an autism diagnosis.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the published literature and identify putative urinary biomarkers of autism.

METHODS:

A comprehensive literature search was conducted using electronic bibliographic databases.

RESULTS:

Putative autism biomarkers were identified that could be categorized according to the key theories that exist regarding the etiology of autism: gastrointestinal factors, immune dysregulation, heavy metal toxicity, neurotransmitter abnormalities, and oxidative stress.

CONCLUSION:

There is scope for specific urinary biomarkers to be useful for identification of autistic metabolic phenotypes.

PMID:
22022826
DOI:
10.3109/1354750X.2011.598564
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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