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Pancreas. 2012 Apr;41(3):447-54. doi: 10.1097/MPA.0b013e318229da41.

Grape-seed procyanidins inhibit the in vitro growth and invasion of pancreatic carcinoma cells.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Hsin-Chu General Hospital, Hsinchu, Taiwan.



Grape-seed procyanidins (GSPs) can inhibit cell proliferation and invasiveness in various human cancers. However, the effect of GSP on pancreatic carcinoma cells has not been investigated.


Pancreatic carcinoma cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 treated with GSP were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion, for cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry, for increased apoptosis by annexin V labeling, for their adhesion and invasion potential by evaluating their ability to penetrate through a matrix gel-coated Boyden chamber, and for changes in the levels of proteins involved in cellular events by immunoblotting.


Grape-seed procyanidin inhibited MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and induced G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle in BxPC-3 or mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2. Grape-seed procyanidin also inhibited the adhesion and invasion potential of both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, which are associated with the suppression of metalloproteases matrix metalloproteinase 9 or 2 (MMP-9 or -2) expression.


Grape-seed procyanidin inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic carcinoma cells by cell cycle blockage or apoptotic induction. The invasiveness was also suppressed by GSP through down-regulation of MMP-2 or MMP-9 in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Grape-seed procyanidin is a potential chemotherapeutic or preventive agent for pancreatic carcinoma.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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