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Dose Response. 2011;9(3):377-86. doi: 10.2203/dose-response.11-026.Maynard. Epub 2011 Jul 29.

Hormesis pervasiveness and its potential implications for pharmaceutical research and development.

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  • 1Sanofi US, Inc.


This mini-review illustrates that hormesis is not only confined to the areas of biochemistry, radiation biology and toxicology, where it is traditionally known, but illustrates, by citing published scientific literature, that it is found across a wide range of biomedical science and clinical medicine such as neuroscience, cardiology and oncology. The use of techniques and technology, including high through-put screening, micro-dosing or phase 0 studies, pharmacometrics and adaptive trial design in the clinic, are proposed to illustrate how acknowledging the potential impact of hormesis throughout different stages of drug discovery and development, including hurdles related to efficacy and safety, could help the pharmaceutical industry address some of its major and frequently mentioned challenges.


dose response; drug development; drug discovery; hormesis; pharmaceutical industry; research and development

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